Send us your questions

Some of our visitors have sent emails with interesting questions, we decided to start having a space to answer them. In this space the blog "Restless Minds" will answer all questions you send us
Send us your question for the email: Restless Minds.

Science progress affects our daily life and "to know" means you are going to chose right, because it allows you to form your own opinion on scientific everyday issues. On the other hand, having an elegant and harmonious vision of the world where we live in leads to a feeling of intellectual satisfaction.
We believe this kind of scientific day to day knowledge should be encouraged from an early age, and that's why this project was born: science, culture, knowledge, crafts for your restless mind.

Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Instant facts- Just add water 53

Honey is a healthier choice than artificial sugar.

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

Instant facts- Just add water 52

The largest coffee-producing nation, Brazil, is responsible for 30 to 40 % of total world output.

Monday, February 27, 2012

DIY Felt bookmarker

I found this here. I think is lovely, happy crafts.

Et Voilá!
Another super restless idea. Thank you Mª João.


Instant facts- Just add water 51

A belgian man living in Guatemala by the name of George Washington invented the instant coffee in 1906.

Saturday, February 25, 2012

DIY Carnival masks

I found this molds here, and I tried to do it, the result is above.

What we need:
  • scissors,
  • pen,
  • felt, I used red ad black,
  • double tape.
How to:
  1. Print the draw you want to use to your mask. You can find a few at the end of this post, If you don't have a printer use tracing paper in your computer monitor;
  2. With the pen draw the outside lines of the mask on the felt;
  3. Cut the felt;
  4. Cut of the mask eyes;
  5. Repeat the steps 1-4 for the other mask elements (the black pieces on the pictures), use a different felt color;
  6. Apply double tape n the back of the small mask ornaments, like in pictures;
  7. Cut out the excess tape, use good scissors ;
  8. Apply the small pieces on the mask;
  9. Place the mask on your restless face and mark the holes to pass through the elastic;
  10. Use the paper punch or the scissors to do a small hole;
  11. Place the elastic; you may want to reinforce the hole with a small piece of felt.
  • You may apply glitter to give some light to your mask;
  • You can paint it;
  • Use more then 2 colors for a crazy look;
  • etc. 

Et voilá!


Friday, February 17, 2012

Instant facts- Just add water 50

The weight a person loses directly after intense physical activity is weight from water, not fat.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Instant facts- Just add water 49

Dalmatians are completely white at birth.

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Instant facts- Just add water 48

There are more bacterial cells in the body than human cells.
Scientists have estimated that about 95% of all the cells in the body are bacteria. The vast majority of these microbes can be found within the digetive tract.

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Be my valentine

Happy Valentine's Day:

Other Valentine's Day ideias here.

Et voilá!
Spread the love.


Instant facts- Just add water 47

JK Rowling's Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix is the fastest-selling book ever.

Monday, February 13, 2012

Instant facts- Just add water 46

To win a gold disc, an album needs to sell 100,000 copies in Britain, and 500,000 in the United States

Friday, February 10, 2012

Swirling colors in a milk bowl

Try this and watch the colors swirl in a milk bowl. This is very easy to do and takes less then a minute to do.

We need:

  • bowl,
  • food coloring, red and blue,
  • toothpicks,
  • detergent,
  • milk.
How to:
  1. Pour a bit of milk on the bowl;
  2. Add 2 drops of blue food coloring;
  3. Now, away from the blue, add another 2 drops of red food coloring;
  4. Let your restless play with the toothpicks and the milk on the bowl, let them "draw" at will, What happens?
  5. Now, add a drop of detergent;
What happens?
The colors blend immediately, almost instantly, after we add the detergent

When we add the food coloring, it just stay there, exactly where we placed it.
Then, when we introduce the detergent to the equation, the colors blend in a sec. That’s because the detergent will make the surface tension to drop, and the "milk skin", that allows the color "to sit there", will disappear.
As we saw  here, this skin works as a coat that maintains other molecules at surface, and therefore preventing its dissolution n the milk. When his surface tension is disturbed, the food coloring (and other milk molecules) find less resistance and therefore they can move all around in the bowl.
But there is another phenomena happening in the bowl: Some milk protein denaturate by the action of detergent.
Both things contribute for the surface tension changes.

See the video:

Et voilá!
A ocean of colors!


DNA extraction from onion cells

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in almost living "things".
Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most of DNA is located in cell nucleus. We can say this DNA is like a stepladder and it can be as long as 1,80m but it can fold itself so tight it can be stored in a small space with micro dimensions.

Lets see how we can see this DNA without any microscopy help.

We need:
  • 2 bowls, one of them must be transparent,
  • a knife,
  • a onion,
  • dish detergent,
  • salt,
  • water,
  • 2 spoons,
  • alcohol.
How to:
  1. Peel the onion;
  2. Cut the onion, into small pieces, to the bowl;
  3. Add some dish detergent, enough to cover it;
  4. Add the salt (1/2 tablespoon);
  5. Finally add the water (2 tablespoons);
  6. Mix, careful, we don't want it to form bubbles;
  7. Wait 20 min;
  8. Mix again;
  9. Separate the liquid layer from the rest, the DNA is on the liquid, reject the rest.
  10. Add alcohol to the liquid, slowly, we want the alcohol to form a second layer above the liquid, try to make the alcohol run down the bowl wall.
  11. Don't mix the layers;
  12. Wait another 20 min.
What happens?
You can see small white strands; some of them may look like small clusters.

DNA precipitates when mixed with alcohol; this means it's not soluble in this reagent. This causes the DNA to clump together when there is a lot of it. And, usually, cells contain a lot of it!

Salt- Helps DNA to precipitate
Cold water- Helps to maintain DNA intact. If we use hot water cellular enzymes can destroy the DNA strand.

Et voilá!
Genetic in your kitchen!


DIY - Wax lantern

Want to impress your restless? Try to make some lanterns to decorate the table on Valentines Day.

We got the idea here, and looks really simple, but it requires some work.

We need:
  • paraffin, same we use here,
  • balloons, medium size,
  • old pot, you will never be able to use it again to cook,
  • aluminum foil.
How to:
  1. Melt the wax on the pot;
  2. Fill the balloon with warm water;
  3. Try to keep the wax at the same temperature all time;
  4. Dip the balloon in the wax, slow and just to the water level;
  5. Keep it there for 4 or 5 seconds;
  6. Pull it out;
  7. Wait 10 seconds;
  8. Repeat the steps 4 to 7 for 3 or 4 times;
  9. Let the balloon to cool on the aluminum foil, the bottom will cool with a straight surface;
  10. Repeat all over again (4 to 9) 3 or 4 times until the lantern has the  desired thickness;
  11. When the wax is completely cold, burst the balloon, do it in the bathroom!
  12. Heat up the aluminum foil in the stove and place you lantern on it, upside down.
It's ready! Use a small candle inside of it

NOTE: Don't dive the balloon above the water level!
Clean your lantern with a humid cloth, without detergent

You can:
  • Paint it,
  • Decorate it with a stencil, or geometric templates,
  • Use a small hot object to carve it,
  • Dye the wax like we did here,
  • ...
Et voilá!
It looks amazing!


Coanda effect

Try this:

We need:
  • a candle,
  • a bottle,
  • match box, or any other small rectangular box.
How to:
  1. Light the candle;
  2. Place the bottle between you and the candle, close as possible but without touching each other
  3. Place yourself near the on the opposite side and blow to the bottle, like you wish to extinguish the candle, what happens?;
  4. Light the candle again;
  5. Replace the bottle for the box;
  6. Now blow, try to blow with same intensity.
What happens?
When you e a bottle the candle extinguish at first blow. When you use the box, the candle resist, even if you blow harder.
Eventually it will extinguish if we blow very hard, that’s because a vortex will be formed and the air circulation will extinguish the candle at the end.

This is a simple Coanda effect demonstration.
Coanda effect was discovered in 1910 by the Romanian engineer Henri Coanda (1885-1972), Coanda began to study this phenomenon after having he crashed a prototype aircraft (Coandă-1910). (1)
To the capacity of a fluid, to follow on a curve surface, like it's glued to it, we call Coanda effect- of course this is a very simple way to explain this, in fact is far more complex.

Bottle surface is smooth and curved, and the air we blow travels like its glued to the glass surface, the air goes around the bottle circumference, this allow us to blow the candle with just a little breath. On the other hand, the match box is a rectangular and plain surface, in this case the air flows to the corner of the box, this corner is a 90º angle, and therefore the air can't travel glued to the surface, like in first example. In fact the air is expelled away from the candle; this will form a vortex, which will eventually extinguish the candle.
This effect helps to explain why the plains stay in the air. 

Et voilá!
Simple and fun!


Dalton Ghetti- Small is beautiful

"For Dalton, sculpting pencils is a hobby and a form of meditation, which requires a lot of patience. His pencil carvings are not for sale. He doesn’t do it for money. He sculpts pencils mostly for himself and his art comes from his heart. He wants to keep it that way."

Restless Minds all over the world, open your eyes and prepare yourself to see what "Small is beautiful" means.

I will leave you with some pictures:

Et voilá!
You can learn more about Dalton here. Amazing artists with available materials.


Instant facts- Just add water 45

Pineapples do not grow on trees.

Valentine's finger puppets

Let's talk about cute things we can make for the valentines day. This craft is easy enought for our younger restless, i found it here.

We need:
  • thick cardboard,
  • pink and red cardboard,
  • hole paper punch,
  • scissors,
  • permanent markers, black, red and pink,
  • grafitti pencil,
  • eraser pen,
  • craft glue,
  • googly eyes.
How to:
  1. Draw a heart shape on the thick cardboard, use it as a template to make more.
  2. Punch a starter hole for each finger with the hole punch,
  3. Use the scissors to enlarge the circle; a child's fingers should fit snugly through the holes.
  4. Decorate the heart with a paint pen or marker, adding facial features;
  5. Write your message on the back. 
  6. Glue on googly eyes.
We leave 3 heart shapes templates you can use:

Et voilá!
Cute puppets

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